Psychotic illness can be caused by an accident, poison, tumor, infection or some similar organic cause. If no disease or impairment in brain function is obvious, it is called a functional psychosis. Schizophrenia and the manic-depressive psychoses are functional psychoses. A person with a psychosis may have strange thoughts and behave in strange and inappropriate ways. He may forget things, become confused or have inappropriate emotional reactions, for example, crying or laughing for no good reason.
Treatment of organic psychosis is directed at the cause. Functional psychosis can be treated with a combination of drugs, and sometimes with a short stay in the hospital if the illness is acute. Follow-up care is essential to prevent any relapse and to help the patient to resume a normal life.
Psychoneuroses are a very common group of mental disorders, which include anxiety, depression, hysteria and phobias. An anxious person may be very tense and worried by unpleasant anticipations. In hysteria, symptoms of an illness such as paralysis may be mimicked without knowing why. A phobia is a fear of something specific like heights, enclosed spaces, dogs, or flying.
The treatment of psychoneurosis may involve a combination of drugs to induce calm, counseling, psychotherapy and behavior therapy. Sometimes a condition is not serious enough to require treatment.
Behavior which differs significantly from the normal standard of behavior may be a sign of a personality disorder and the person may be regarded as a social misfit or eccentric. Such a personality may be obsession with rigid attention to small details; may be schizoid, solitary and introspective, lacking empathy and personal relationships with other people; or may be hysterical with constant attention-seeking behavior.
Personal disorders are extremely difficult to treat. A therapist may attempt to form a trusting relationship with a patient to try to influence antisocial behavior making it more acceptable to the wider community.
Drug and alcohol dependence
Drug and alcohol dependence is regarded as a form of mental disorder and may respond to a combination of social and psychological treatment. Results are extremely variable. The new DSM-5 refers to them as substance use disorders, and they may be characterized by a number of different drugs being abused.
Treatment for drug and alcohol abuse varies. There are different levels of treatment including detox, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, and sober living. Drug detox is the process of removing the drugs from your system and is an important first step in treating addiction. However, addiction treatment is much more effective when followed up with intensive therapy and residential treatment.
Types of Mental Illness: List of Mental Disorders, www.buzzle.com, Jayashree Pakhare, May 12, 2007
Mental Health: Types of Mental Illness, WebMD